istorical characteristics are very intense on Chios. Stravon believed that the Pelasgians were the first inhabitants around 1600 b.C. Also Leleges from the Near Eastern coast, Kares from the Karia and Avantes from Evia came to the island. At 1100 b.C. Iones came as well from Attica and infused their culture to the island.
Chios, alike other islands and coastial greek towns, soon had a great fleet and became known amongst the merchants. But Chios also bloomished intellectually. Chios is Homer's homeland and the Omirides, great rhapsodists who were inspired by Homer's work.
Chios is the first city in the world that had a democratic state. The Big Clause was the base for the laws that Solon wrote when he founded the athenian democracy.
Chians stood against persian imperialism but in the end the Persians occupied Chios at 493 b.C. Later Chios joined the athenian alliance and saw may prosperous years.
Chios was with side of the Athenians during the Peloponnissian war until the destructive defeat in Sicily. After that they sided with the Spartans, but with signing Antalkideios peace treaty, Chios renew the alliance with the Athenians. When Alexander the Great ruled, there was a Macedonian guard in Chios. After Alexander's death a decline period begun for the island.
Romans and Arabs occupied and plundered many times Chios. When the Byzantines recaptured Crete they recognized Chios' strategic place. Thus began the fortification of the island with Castle on the eleventh century. Constantine Monomachos built Nea Moni, on the exact spot where three monks had found the picture of Virgin Mary.
The republic of Genoa was an upcoming force. Genoese soon remarked the strategic location of Chios, like Byzantine had in the past. From 1346 when they captured Chios and for two centuries, the island thrived. The conquerors organised the trade of mastic and brought to Chios the cultivation of citrus fruits and silkworms. Genoese resisted the Turks till 1566. The mastic's trade insured some benefits for the people of Chios but the Turks were suppressing them.
Natural consequence was the great Chian contribution to Greek Revolution. An attempt to free the island was made on 1822 but this ended in the blood of the rebels. The Turkish fleet burned and destroyed everything for 15 days, trying to make Chians an example for all Greek rebels. But this year, is known in history for the destruction of the Turkish flagship by Kanaris, the captain of a fire ship. Kapoudan All Kara Ali and many other Turks dignitaries are burried in the Turkish cemetery in Castle of Chios. Few people survived the Chios massacre and they tried to built again their city on 1832. They 've countered various obstacles, even natural disasters. Finally, Chios has been set free in 1912 and became a part of free Greece. The Germans also left their marks in Chios, during World War II. But the Chians, once again prooved their bravery participating with all means in the national resistance.